Monthly Archives: January 2016

Five Skandhas and Eight Consciousness五蘊及八識

Five Skandhas五蘊 and Eight Consciousness 八識

Five Skandhas 五蘊

  1. Rupa: 色 Form or Matter Aggregate: Form 地 Fluid 水Heat 火Moving 風Space 空 Perception 見

Consciousness識.

  1. Vedana: 受Sensation/ feeling ( 6 sense organs: eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, mind in contact with the 6 sense

objects: form, sound, smell. taste, bodily impression, mental objects.)

  1. Samjna: 想 Perception/ discrimination ( recognition the mental function of shape, color, length, pain, pleasure etc.)
  2. Samskara: 行 Mental Function (i.e. flashback, will, intention, or mental accounts for craving.)
  3. Vijnana: 識 Consciousness ( Cognitive, discrimination) Provides memory for seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, bodily sensation, and mental consciousness, Manas consciousness, and Alaya consciousness.

Form ——————–Eyes sense

Sound ——————Ears sense

Smell ——————-Nose sense

Taste ——————-Tongue sense

Touch ——————Body   sense

Mind ——————Mind consciousness

The above five aggregates and the mind like the camera, which reflected objects to the mind consciousness, they send all information as “raw material” to the six consciousness to process; by identifying what they are.

For example; when you see a red rose, your eyes sees the shape of a rose, your eyes did not know what it is. your eye-senses send the information to the sixth consciousness ( “Mano-consciousness”).

The sixth consciousness identify it as a red rose (not yellow, white etc.). Then the sixth consciousness sends this information to the seventh consciousness .

There’s Seventh consciousness; it’s called Manas (末那識). It is the “Delude awareness, This seventh consciousness posited on the basis of straightforward cognition, combined with inferential cognition. it is a “mind consciousness”, this is where self grasping, attitude, jealousy, hatred, love, and disturbing emotions all posit. Our Dharma practice of training the mind is to focus on taming the disturbing emotions, and bring the mind to a stable and calm abiding, so life would be more peaceful and enjoyable.

There’s Eighth consciousness; it is called Alaya ( 阿賴耶識) . It is All-encompassing foundation consciousness, it functions the reflexive awareness and storage of memory. Posited on the basis of inferential cognition. In plain explanation; it’s like a storage for all good deeds and bad deeds / good karma or bad karma one generated in the previous and present life times, and all the habits (familiarities) which become like a seed for future becoming, it dictates one ‘s favorable or unfavorable rebirth.

Within the Eighth consciousness, there also is the Amora consciousness (阿摩羅識), it is the pure divine consciousness, it is what is referred to as Buddha-nature .

That is why Buddha said we are all capable to be enlightened, because we all naturally have Buddha-seed or Buddha-nature within. If we purify all the delusions, impurities in our eighth consciousness, leaving only the pure Buddha-nature, we would be free from rebirth in the lower six realms of Samsara.

Seven Wisdom Wealth 七聖財

 

Seven Wisdom Wealth 七聖財 ( 報恩經 )

You would have noticed, that many of the Dharma teachings are overlapped. As you know; Buddha taught 49 years, to people at different times and places, and his teachings are according to different levels of capacities of the people present at that time.

On the Buddhist path, it’s important that we accumulate these “Wealth”, without them, it’s impossible for us to achieve enlightenment, these are qualities we need to develop and practice.

In general, people accumulate wealth for survival, for living a better life, for security of their future, for their children and other different reasons. Which is a good thing, except, there’s a problem, we cannot take anything with us when it’s time to leave this world, no matter how much wealth you have, how much you love someone, your accomplishment, your status, your favorite collectables and so forth. You cannot take anything! except Karma (good and bad) which we generated during our life time.

However! we can take our wisdom, it remained within our 8th. consciousness (Alaya), therefore, we want to nurture good things we can take with us into next life. The Seven Wisdom-Wealth are;

  1. Faith: faith in the three jewels; Buddha, Dharma and Sangha, don’t be a drop-out.
  2. Precepts: following strict precepts to create good cause and effect, for better rebirth.
  3. Clear Conscience: Anything we do, good or bad, creates an imprint in our deep consciousness, if we do a bad deed, even though no one knows, but deep inside we know, don’t try to cheat ourselves, because this becomes a cancer in the mind, eventually it will hurt us.
  4. Generosity: This is giving with passion, and without attachment, a mind of emptiness of who give, who received and what was given.
  5. Diligence: Develop genuine interest and effort in study and practice (apply) in daily life, being focused on the path to enlightenment.
  6. Tolerance: All Buddhas and Bodhisattvas praise those with great tolerance. This can only be arrived by understanding of emptiness, realization of all things ultimately lack inherent existence.
  7. Wisdom: Stability of the mind, no trace of disturbing emotions, this is achieved through following precepts and accomplishment in higher levels of meditation.

Lineage Transmission of Buddha Mind 佛的心印傳承

          Lineage Transmission of Buddha Mind 佛的心印傳承

                           Chan (Zen) Patriarchs 禪宗傳承

 

The Transmission of the Light gives 28 patriarchs in India transmission, and to 6th. Patriarch in China.

From Buddha Shakyamuni to :

1.Mahakashyapa摩訶迦葉

2 Ananda 阿難陀

3.Sanavasa商那和修

4.Upagupta優婆掬多

5.Dhartaka提多迦

  1. Miccaka彌遮迦
  2. Vasumitra 婆須密
  3. Buddhanandi 浮陀難提
  4. Buddhamitra 浮陀密多

10.Parsva   婆栗濕婆

11.Punyayasas富夜耶奢

  1. Anabodhi阿那菩提
  2. Kapimala 迦毘摩羅
  3. Nagarjuna龍樹
  4. Aryadeva迦那提婆
  5. Rahulata 羅睺羅多
  6. Sanghanandi僧伽難提

18.Sanghayasas 僧伽舍多

  1. Kumarata   僧伽舍多
  2. Sayata   闍夜多
  3. Vasubandhu 世親
  4. Manorhita 摩拏羅
  5. Haklenayasas 鶴勒夜那夜者
  6. Simhabodhi 師子菩提
  7. Vasiasita 婆舍斯多
  8. Punyamitra 不如密多
  9. Prajnatara 般若多羅
  10. Bodhi Dharma 菩提達磨 (The last Patriarch in India, whom traveled to China to spread pure

Dharma and to seek for a Lineage disciple)

In China:

  1. Bodhidharma 達摩 (ca. 440 – ca. 528)
  2. Huike 慧可 (487 ? –593)
  3. Sengcan        僧燦 (d. 606)
  4. Daoxin 道信 ( 580 –651)
  5. Hongren 弘忍 ( 601 –674)
  6. Huineng 慧能 ( 638 –713)

Bodhidharma had instructed Huike that after 6th. Patriarch , there’s no need to continue passing down the lineage Bowl and Robe. The Chan practice will be flourished in China, and there would be many people practicing Chan, but only few will be able to truly comprehend, and attain Chan-Realization.

Zen (Chinese Tran禪 )

                                       Zen (Chinese Chan )

The word “Zen” (Chinese Chan) means Buddha-mind, was transmitted from the Buddha to his disciple first patriarch Mahakashyapa, down to 28th patriarch Bodhidharma, then transmitted from Bodhidharma to China. It is transmitted heart-to heart, or the “Seal” of Buddha-mind, directly point to the pure mind. This transmission is beyond religion, words or languages, form and formless, beyond time and space.

Dhyana or Jhana, modern interpretation as “meditation”. This practice has traced back to ancient India ascetics practices of the Jains and Upanishads. The new interpretation was first found in the tripitaka and not in any pre-Buddhist text.

The stratification of particular Samadhi experiences into the four Arupajhana. infinite space. infinite consciousness, infinite nothingness , neither perception nor non-perception, and referred to as the four “formless states” (of the mind ) which lead to state of perfect equanimity and awareness.

The Buddha Shakyamuni left his palace, set out to seek a solution for spiritual enlightenment, he had learned from two teachers; Arada Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta. These practices of Jhana were paired to mindfulness and insight. According to legend, he learned two kinds of meditation, did not lead him to enlightenment. He then underwent harsh ascetic practices with which he eventually realized that asceticism was not leading to enlightenment either, through the middle-way, he became disillusioned and gained insight into the Four Noble Truths, and found solutions to cessation of suffering, his experience must have been of such a nature that it could bear the interpretation” achieving immortality”, attained complete enlightenment.

Here we need to understand that, harsh ascetic practices was not the way to achieve enlightenment, it is the Middle-way that lead Siddhartha Gautama to attain enlightenment.

the state of “neither perception nor non-perception”.彌勒菩薩中觀論The Middle Way is the term that Siddhartha Gautama used to describe the character of the path he discovered that leads to liberation. It is a state without an object of awareness, that is not devoid of awareness, or a state of  “cessation of perception”.

In the “Platform of the Six Patriarch” (Chinese: 六祖壇經)

The famous story of the Six Patriarch; Hui-Neng was born into the Lu family in 638 A.D. in Xin-zhou (present-day Xin-xing County) in Guang-Dong province. His father died when he was young and his family was poor. As a consequence, Hui-Neng had no opportunity to learn to read or write and is said to have remained illiterate his entire life.

The first chapter of the Platform Sutra ( Collection of teachings of the six patriarch Hui-Neng ) tells the well-known story of the Dharma-transmission from Hong-Ren to Hui-Neng. Hong-Ren asked his students to…

… write me a stanza (gatha) He who understands what the Essence of Mind is will be given the robe (the insignia of the Patriarchate) and the Dharma (the ultimate teaching of the Chan school), and I shall make him the Sixth Patriarch.

Only Shen-Xiu wrote a poem, anonymously on the wall in the middle of the night. It stated:

身是菩提樹, The body is a Bodhi tree, 心如明鏡臺。 The mind a standing mirror bright. 時時勤拂拭, At all times polish it diligently, 勿使惹塵埃。 And let no dust alight.

(Note: On the path of constant practice – stages to enlightenment )

After having read this poem aloud to him, Hui-neng asked an officer to write another gatha on the wall for him, next to Shen-Xiu’s, which stated:

 

菩提本無樹, Bodhi is originally without any tree; 明鏡亦非臺。 The bright mirror is also not a stand. 本來無一物, Originally there is not a single thing — 何處惹塵埃。 Where could any dust be attracted?

(Note: Achieved insight into the absolute nature of reality, which is more advance than Shen-Xiu’s understanding )

At the beginning of the Song Dynasty (宋朝), practice with the kōan method became popular.     A koan, literally “public case”, is a story or dialogue, describing an interaction between a Zen master and a student. Koans emphasize the non-conceptional insight that the Buddhist teachings are pointing to. Koans can be used to provoke the “great doubt”, and test a student’s progress in Chan realization (禪的証悟) .

Koan inquiry may be practiced during sitting meditation , walking meditation , and throughout all the activities of daily life. The Zen student’s mastery of a given kōan is presented to the teacher in a private interview While there is no unique answer to a kōan, practitioners are expected to demonstrate their understanding of the koan and of Zen through their responses. The teacher may approve or disapprove of the answer and guide the student in the right direction.

So, Zen is non-conceptional insight, direct insight of true reality, the mind is pure, it is non- contaminated, the mind is neutral, non-attachment of all phenomena, non-judgmental, view all thing with true spirit, as is “suchness”, not good or bad, not inside nor outside, not right nor wrong (due to cause and effect). This is true meaning of the middle way. This state of mind is exhibited in the Heart Sutra (of the Prajna Paramitas Sutra.) Form is emptiness, emptiness is form, it is non-dual. Therefore, true self is no other than the self, here and now.

Recovering of true self, is completely abandoning greed, hatred, endless desires, jealousy, doubts. Attained through comprehension of the Buddha-Dharma, and insight meditation.