*** Gelug(pa), (Yellow Hat) 黃帽
The “Way of Virtue” school was originally a reformist movement and is known for its emphasis on logic and debate. The order was founded in the 14th to 15th century by Je Tsongkhapa (1357 – 1419) , renowned for both his scholarship and virtue. Based on the foundations of the Kadampa tradition, Lam Rim practice is the cord teaching.
The Dalai Lama belongs to the Gelugpa school and is regarded as the embodiment of Chenrezig, the Bodhisattva of Compassion (the equivalent of Avalokitesvara).
*** Kagyu(pa), (Red hat) 紅帽
“Lineage of the (Buddha’s) Word”. This is an oral tradition which is very much concerned with the experiential dimension of meditation.This school very much represents the scholarly tradition.
Important and famous Kagyupa teachers includes; Tilopa 帝若巴 ( 988-1069), Naropa 那若巴 ( 1016-1100 )
Marpa 馬爾巴 ( 1012-1097), Milarepa密勒日巴( 1040 to1123 ) Gampopa 岡波巴 (1079~1153)
A twentieth century Great teacher Kalu Rinpoche, 17th Karmapa 十七世大寶法王 Born in 1986, the head of the Karma Kagyu sect of Tibetan Buddhism, (He was invited to America for a two-month visit in the spring 2015)
***Nyingma(pa), (Red hat) 紅帽
The oldest and original order founded by Padmasambhava, a Tibetan master, who taught very early esoteric scriptures known as tantras. In this school there is a good deal of emphasis placed on meditation. While other schools categorize their teachings into the three yānas or “vehicles”, Hinayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana, the Lyingma tradition classifies its teachings into Nine Yānas, among the highest of which is Dzogchen. Terma ” hidden treasures”. Padmasambhava 蓮華生大士 ( 7th-8th Century ) Referred by Tibetans as “Guru Rinpoche” (Precious Teacher).
Noted in the West for the teachings of the Tibetan Book of the Dead.
*** Sakya(pa), (Red hat) 紅帽The “Grey Earth” school represents the scholarly tradition. this tradition was founded by Khön Könchok Gyelpo (1034–1102), a disciple of the great lotsāwa Drogmi Shākya and traces its lineage to the mahasiddha Virūpa. A renowned exponent, Sakya Pandita (1182–1251CE), was the great-grandson of Khön Könchok Gyelpo. This school very much represents the scholarly tradition